Domain (domain name) – is the address (name) of a website on the Internet, consisting of a set of characters and numbers. Each domain name on the Internet is unique. The maximum length of the domain name (between dots) is 63 characters. The total length of the name, including subdomains, split points and the name of the domain zone, can be up to 255 characters.
1 Domain Structure
2 Domain zones
3 IDN and Punycode
5 Domain selection
The full domain name (from the English. FQDN – Fully Qualified Domain Name – a fully qualified domain name) consists of several parts – the actual name and all domains, separated by dots.
Consider this for example google.com.ua domain.
. (dot) – domain of zero level – most often the dot is not indicated, but implied;
.ua – domain of the first (top) level;
com.ua – second level domain;
google.com.ua is a third level domain.
In this context, we should further consider such a thing as a subdomain.
A subdomain (or subdomain of the English subdomain) is a domain that is part of a higher level domain. A subdomain is a relative concept, as seen in the following examples: blog.google.com.ua is a subdomain of the google.com.ua domain, in turn google.com.ua is a subdomain of the .com.ua domain.
Top-level domains (from the English. TLD – top – level domains) are divided into:
national (ccTLD – country code top level domains) – domains belonging to a particular country, consist of two letters, for example, .ua – Ukraine, .ru – Russia;
thematic (gTLD – generic top level domains) – domains that define the thematic identity of the site, for example, .com – commercial, .travel – travel services.
IDN and Punycode
Separately, it is worth to highlight internationalized domain names.
Internationalized domains (from the English IDN, Internationalized Domain Names) are domains that contain characters of national alphabets, as opposed to a standard domain name, which includes only Latin letters. An example of an IDN would be cab. En.
But since only Latin characters are allowed in the domain name system, a transformation method such as Punycode was implemented. It allows characters in Unicode (in other words, the characters of national alphabets and special characters) to be converted to ASCII, which includes only numbers and Latin characters. At the beginning of such a converted domain name, the prefix “xn––” will be specified.
For example, a cabinet will look like this: xn –– 80aczkf3m.xn –– j1amh.
You can convert a domain to ASCII by using special services, example Punycode-converter: https://2ip.ru/punycode/
Whois is a service that allows you to get information about the information about the owner of the domain name, the domain registrar and the DNS servers to which the domain is sent.
This can be done by typing in the command line the command whois domain.com or whois 18.104.22.168, where domain.com is the name of the required domain, instead of 22.214.171.124 is the IP address you need. There are also Whois online resources, for example, http://whois.net/
When choosing the right name for your site, you should pay attention to such moments:
the domain name is short and memorable;
domain name associated with your business;
The domain name includes the name of your brand or company;
domain zone refers to the territory of the site audience (.com.ua for residents of Ukraine) or reflects the thematic focus of the site (.photo for photographers);
Try to avoid complex letter combinations (zh, sch), numbers and special characters (-, *) in case they do not carry a semantic load.
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